Use traditional meditation to create the changes in the brain that lead to the benefits I’ve described here. Of course that means going through a long learning curve while you master the art of meditation, motivating yourself to sit each day to meditate. And, to get the benefits I’ve described, you’ll need to meditate several hours each day), and continue in that way for 30+ years.
Most wisdom traditions have employed methods that allow the subjects' brain waves to slow down such as meditation, [Hindu] kirtan, [Gregorian, Menzuma or Sufi] chanting, Hebrew davening, Native American drum circles and rain chants, Tibetan prayer bowls, and whirling dervishes and African trance dancing. The rhythm of these wisdom tradition technologies actually slows people's brain waves from their normal busy brain frequency we call Beta (13-30 cycles per second or Hz), to Alpha (8-13Hz) -- meditation, Theta (4-8Hz) -- deep relaxation and dreaming, and Delta (.5-4Hz) -- slow wave or dreamless sleep.
The benefits of brainwave entrainment have been debated by numerous experts and, after multiple sessions of observation, the following effects were identified. First, the beats were seen to assist in meditation with the use of low frequencies such as Alpha, Delta and Theta, triggering a sense of relaxation that ultimately allows undisturbed meditation.
Binaural beats are created from two different continuous tones, which when sent separately to each ear create a single beat inside your head. Isochronic tones are basically a single tone which is switched on and off at regular intervals. Imagine a single continuous tone playing on a stereo system and you’ve got your hand on the volume switch. Then once per second, you turn the volume off for half a second and keep doing that every second. For half a second the volume is off, for the other half a beat waveform is formed. The beat is cycling once per second per second, i.e. at a rate of 1Hz.
My name is ******. I’m a systems engineer which have worked on the engineering field for over 20 years. During the last few years I have faced some personal challenges which have put a lot of my abilities to a test. Over a year now I got the “Equisync II” CDs from the EOC Institute, and the results from the very beginning were really amazing. Even as an engineer it was not easy to understand the incredible benefits of this brainwaves therapy when used consistently.
With these studies in mind, EquiSync's revolutionary, multi-layered, multi-tiered approach was born. Designed to synchronize and harmonize your brainwaves while allowing you access to the deepest, most pleasurable, most beneficial states of meditation — much faster than the traditional route, EquiSync® has made mastering meditation easier than ever!
At the end of just two weeks of use (I was now into the Equisync II cds), I experienced for the first time ever, what my partner described as Nirvana. I experienced a complete dissolution of individual consciousness, felt at one with everything, and felt the deepest peace, love, and complete bliss I had ever, ever experienced in my life. Since you do all the research on this, you know what I’m describing. Unfortunately, language does not express it. I have never experienced mind altering drugs, but I recall watching a documentary of LSD research, and one of the subjects described the exact same “feelings” as I had when she had received a micro amount of LSD.
How it works: Brain Wave synchronizes brainwaves with a specific frequency by sending two different audible frequencies to each ear, which, after being processed by the brain, are perceived as an inaudible low frequency beat matching the target brainwave frequency. Various states of mind are associated with different inaudible brainwave frequencies, ranging from an alert and focused state of mind to deeply relaxed, all the way to deep sleep, and can be induced with this technique. Brain Wave recreates these frequencies using the most advanced multi-stage binaural sequences available, allowing your mind to relax and synchronize with your desired state. It achieves this using a unique process called progressive brainwave entrainment.
· THETA waves exist between 4 and 7 Hz. This is commonly referred to as the dream or “twilight” state. Theta is associated with learning, memory, REM sleep and dreaming. Memory development is enhanced while in this state. When in a theta brainwave state, memory is improved (especially long term memory), and access to unconscious material, reveries, free association, insights and creative ideas is increased.
One RCT (n=108) showed significant reduction in anxiety from a single session of alpha/delta therapy for day surgery patients. A crossover RCT of a single session of theta stimulation in four healthy adults reported significant improvement from the intervention in one of five measures. Five pre/post studies reported significant benefit from the intervention for 16 of 27 outcomes.
Thanks for making Brain Wave the Top-Selling Brainwave Entrainment App in the App Store! * This update includes support for iOS 6, an optimized UI for iPhone 5, and a new ambient forest background. The app is universal, so you get it across all your devices with one app! Includes optimized UIs for iPhone/iPod Touch, iPhone 5, iPad and support for landscape and portrait orientations.
Headaches: There are several reports of brainwave entrainment providing therapeutic benefit for those suffering from general headaches or migraines. A study in 1985 analyzed photic stimulation within the theta range (5 Hz to 8 Hz) and discovered that this protocol provided significant headache relief. A total of 19/24 participants noted that the “slow wave” photic stimulation provided “complete relief” from chronic headaches and migraines.
I have read something different about theta waves and learning languages. A University of Washington study tested students resting brainwave activity before learning French. They found that students with a higher amount beta/gamma and a lower amount of delta/theta activity were better at acquiring a second language. When you are dominant in theta, that is the lowest and most deeply relaxed awakened state you can be in. I think it would be much harder to really concentrate, fully understand and learn new information while in a theta state, so I would personally consider using theta while studying.
Another study found slight improvements in trait anxiety as a result of entrainment. It was noted that the study with the most successful protocol started at 30 Hz beta and ramped the frequency down until the person experienced relaxation for 15 minutes. This was then followed with a session of 8 Hz to 14 Hz for 7 minutes. The results suggested that 75% of individuals improved on their measures of long-term stress.
Thanks for your appreciation of what I’m doing. I’ve been asked for help with autism a number of times over the years, so it’s something that I’ve often looked into and tried to find new information about. Unfortunately, I’ve yet to find any specific research relating to it and using the type of brainwave entrainment tones I use. There are a number of opinions and claims out here, but I’ve often found them to be conflicting. While some are recommending higher frequency gamma waves, others are recommending lower frequency alpha and theta waves while meditating.
Just as you turn the dial on a radio to get the station you want, with Brain Sync you can tune your consciousness to the ideal state of mind. Want to meditate or explore the mysteries of your mind? Listen to Theta Waves. Want to study for an exam, Gamma Waves will boost your brain into high gear. Need a good night's sleep? Delta Waves will help you get the rest your body craves. Feeling overwhelmed and need to chill? Alpha Waves wash away stress and increase creativity.
So how’s that novel coming? Your new song? What about that program you were going to write? Or the website you wanted to build? If your creative project, no matter what it is, isn’t coming along as smoothly or as quickly as you’d hoped, you’re not alone. After a lot of soul-searching, research, and banging my head against the wall, I've learned a lot about creative flow, and I'd like to share these tools, tactics, and insights with you. But back to where we started... It’s not that you didn’t … [Read more...]
I have been making relaxation recordings for mental self help and health improvement since 1979. As a pathfinder in EEG ( brainwave monitoring and entrainment ) I understand totally the effects of sound and music on the human mind and body. The recordings offered from your website are without doubt some of the most effective I have ever used and recommend them to my clients whole heartedly
Hi EJ, at the moment, there hasn’t been any research to give an indication of how long you should or shouldn’t listen for. Over time, I’ve seen people use my tracks for longer and longer. I started off providing 30-minute study tracks, but through demand, I extended them to 3-hours. I know from the many thousands of comments I’ve had on YouTube that a large number of people play those 3-hour tracks on repeat, or listen to different ones, one after the other throughout the day. I’ve also seen apps where you can play tracks like mine on continuous repeat. So it’s common for people to listen to them all day while they are studying.
Meditation enhancement: There are several companies that sell brainwave entrainment sessions specifically designed to enhance meditation. The sounds provide a stimuli to focus on during the meditation, and the brain waves naturally shift towards the frequency provided. Whether meditation is actually enhanced by brainwave entrainment is a subject of debate. However, advanced meditators commonly experience brainwave synchronization – which the right and left hemispheres display the same frequency brain waves. While there are scientific benefits of meditation, it is unclear as to whether they are enhanced, hindered, or unaffected by adjunctive brainwave entrainment.
Isochronic tones are the most recent and advanced method for brainwave entrainment audios. With isochronic tones, the same intensity is used for all tones, but they pulsate on and off at different rates. The speed, pattern, and rates of these tones can be changed and altered throughout the recording, and the brain will follow them into desired states. The use of isochronic tones opens up the ability to lead the brain into highly specific states, at specific speeds and intensities. This has opened up the doorway to producing both dominant and subdominant waves(i.e. an alpha brainwave state with subdominant theta waves), and the ability to lead the brain through different waves, at specific speeds (i.e. holding the brain in an alpha state for 10 minutes, then dropping it through theta for 20, and holding it in delta for five before bringing it back into alpha at the end of the recording.) This allows thousands of different possibilities in training the brain, and also makes the process of listening to these types of audios more natural, and more powerful.
Delta brainwaves, resonating at 1Hz-4Hz, usually only occur in the deeper levels of sleep. It is even uncommon to access Delta brainwaves through meditation, unless one is very advanced, or is using brainwave entrainment. Even while using brainwave entrainment technology, it will take some mental training and practice to be able to maintain conscious awareness and not fall asleep.
When the body-mind effects from experiencing AVE are fully appreciated, the experience becomes as regular and beneficial as many other life essentials such as quality sleep, good nutrition, pure water and exercise. Sleep is another area where AVE has been shown to be beneficial, contributing to the natural regenerative process of the body and brain.
-Other Specialized Entrainment Methods: There are a few other things to consider like whether the audio creator uses binaural beats, monaural beats, or isochronic tones when appropriate for the desired effect of the audio. Or whether they use other entrainment methods as well, like volume modulation, pitch modulation, or panning from right to left of the headphones to further improve the immersion of the audio.
Dissociative but not present. In college I started having difficulty with reading comprehension/absorption (not dyslexia, I could read everything out loud easily but not gather the meaning). Over the past two years or so, my memory has been concerning, as I am not middle or late aged. Since it had been getting worse, I have been researching for several years now for a cure. Biofeedback led me to neurofeedback (which I can’t afford at the moment).
In the 1980s, a researcher in Japan, Tsuyoshi Inouye described how light stimulation creates synchronization of brain hemispheres. Since then, other researchers have detailed the positive effects of hemispheric synchronization including a 1984 study by researcher Dr. Gene W. Brockopp stating that hemispheric synchronization resulted in improved intellectual functioning as well as improvements in long-term memory, and these effects are cumulative over time.
I can offer a hypothetical--however do not know know practical it will turn out to be. There is a fair amonut of bad science on this topic on you tube. The gamma wave frequency is associated with attentional focus and arguably a unified sense of self. If it could be entrained it should lead to a meditative focus-like exceptionally well-trained meditators. Some but not all studies on meditating Buddhist monks suggest this is so. Does this really and more generally occur--I will say there is nothing lost in trying--we all go into a 40Hz range on occasion without ill effect-- but I would not put confidence in the purported methods out there at present. Good luck.
This is the reason why I stress that one should ALWAYS read the instructions provided by the brainwave entrainment product creator, and always do their due diligence in researching the source of any products they purchase. When using a high quality product, these instructions are clear, precise, and always backed up by an extensive network of support and additional information. The product creators who have put in the necessary amount of effort and time to come up with a high quality product always make sure that you don’t get it wrong.
BrainAscend is a completely free meditation program featuring 5 deepening levels, meaning 5 free MP3 tracks using brainwave entrainment technology, created by Marcus Knudsen, inventor of BlissCoded sound. It uses the scientifically proven most effective brainwave entrainment technology in a special process that steadily expands your brain power and consciousness level.
Going back to the technology, the simple claim of brainwave entrainment is that, by listening to these audios, usually with stereo headphones and eyes closed, your brain will be naturally and effortlessly led into a specific brainwave state as designated by the maker of the audio (ie: it could be alpha, theta, delta, gamma, etc., depending on what the audio is designed to do.) The other most basic claim is that when listening to these audios, the right and left hemispheres of the brain synchronize and you experience whole-brain functioning.
I appreciate your compliment on my article Henry. I’ve been using and reading up on isochronic tones and brainwave entrainment for many years, so it was just a case of trying to put a lot of what I’ve learnt into one article. I don’t have a great deal of knowledge or experience in using hypnosis and subliminals, so I’m afraid I wouldn’t be in a position to create something so extensive in reviewing them.
Theta waves have a frequency between 4 and 7.5 hertz, making them slower than more wakeful alpha but faster than the dreamless slumber of delta. Theta brainwaves are the frequencies of nighttime dreams and REM sleep when the brain goes through bursts of activity and eye movement. People also experience theta waves in a state of light sleep, deep relaxation, during meditation and prayer, and when daydreaming. Theta waves produce an experience of inward wakefulness where we become disengaged from the outside world while engaging in inner activity. At the lower frequencies of theta, sleeping states are experienced, and at the higher range of frequency, awake relaxed states are experienced.
Thanks for your compliment on my article. 🙂 There are some frequency lists which reference and quote some links to metabolism, but I don’t know how effective or reliable that information is. One of the good things but also a drawback of this technology is how accessible it is to use and create tracks. That makes it unattractive for big companies to invest in large-scale research because it’s hard to patent and protect any product they produce based on the research. As soon as they released the frequency data, people like me would produce free videos and cheap MP3s to utilise the research, so they wouldn’t be able to get a good return on their research investment. So to try and gain some insight into what is working for people, at the moment, we are relying upon assessing anecdotal feedback in many areas. Before buying any products/tracks for increasing metabolism, I would look for and try out free videos on YouTube first, to try and gauge how those particular tracks and frequencies work for you.
Brainwave entrainment represents a way of using technology to take our meditation and our spiritual practices into territory that has previously been very difficult, if not impossible, for us to venture into. My inspiration for creating the Profound Meditation Program 3.0 was not about just adding binaural beats or isochronic tones to music, using conventional audio entrainment methods to create brainwave patterns, and say, “Hey, this is the next big thing!” To me, it is all about what we can do—even if it’s pulling from way outside of the box—to enable such a profound coherence that we can go to meditative depths that have been practically out of reach. With the Profound Meditation Program 3.0, I wanted to do something that hadn’t been done before, taking the technology to the next level.
With brainwave entrainment audio, the brain will "catch on" and follow (entrain to) the desired brainwave frequency. BrainAscend uses the binaural and isochronic type of entrainment together with amplitude modulation. Isochronic tones have been proven to be the most effective brainwave entrainment technology and does not require headphones. Binaural beats are powerful when it comes to increasing synchronization of the brain hemispheres. You don't have to use headphones, though it is suggested. This is automatic meditation. Press play, close your eyes and BrainAscend does the rest!
Not only do certain brain wave rhythms get strengthened as a result of entrainment, but a dominant frequency band results in a different state of awareness. Those that have used a quality brainwave entrainment product can vouch for the fact that their perception is altered by their brain waves. Not only could this be due to brainwave changes, but it may be a result of increased interhemispheric communication.
Don’t let someone fool you by making this sound overly technical, scientific, or too good to be true. It can truly change your life! It changed mine in a huge way. That’s why I’m so passionate about it! But it isn’t a “magic pill” that will effortlessly solve all your problems. I truly think this technology is nothing short of a miracle, and is on the very edge of the future in scientific ways to influence consciousness, personal development, and success in life, but it is also still practical, and worth exercising some discrimination and skepticism when making a decision on where to spend your money.
Isochronic tones are basically just a single tone with the volume being turned on and off at regular intervals. When you apply the same effects to music or a noise, it’s usually referred to as amplitude entrainment effects (in Mind Workstation anyway). When you apply the on/off effect to music or noise it’s usually done by targeting a specific frequency range in the sound and only turning that part on/off, leaving the rest of the music/noise untouched. What that does is allow parts of the music/noise to play without being distorted/interrupted, making it sound more pleasant to listen to. It produces a kind of fluttering sound as I like to call it and you can adjust the level of intensity.
Until NeuralSync™, brainwave entrainment involved inferior linear, single or sequential protocols - such as binaural beats or isochronic tones - that were natively restricted in their ability to affect the natural complex dynamics of the brain. But now, NeuralSync™ significantly improves entrainment by incorporating EIGHT SEPARATE BUT SYNERGISTICALLY-INTERACTIVE DIMENSIONS into a dynamic and cohesive process powerful enough to compel the brain to produce whole-brain synchronization for intense effect. Incredibly superior to binaural beats or isochronic tones, NeuralSync offers an entrainment experience beyond anything you've used before.
I enjoy this one called: Cognition Enhancer For Clearer and Faster Thinking – Isochronic Tones (Electronic) … I seem to enjoy it. Any harm in just listening to this one every day for 30 minutes as a routine daily thing, just like brushing your teeth and making your bed. I would just use it at times when I’m working at my desk, maybe even reading the online news etc…Thoughts?
Naturally "click" with people – To get to the top, it takes good communication. World leaders get elected for their ability to communicate. Business visionaries have ideas that they make tangible by sharing their dreams with others. Pick up artists attract the opposite sex by noticing, and reacting, to subtle body language and saying the right things at the right time. What if you could easily and automatically just "click" with people, and gain instant rapport with your audience?
Brain Sync Brainwave Technology is the simplest, most affordable way to directly tap into your higher potential and unleash your power to think, create, heal and to change. There’s no training necessary, no need to travel anywhere, or spend hundreds of dollars on complicated home training programs that take up a lot of your valuable time. Just 30 minutes a day will bring outstanding results. When your brain is in balance your ability to think, learn, create and recall is remarkably enhanced. Perception expands, memory improves and you can concentrate more easily. You sleep better and are more resiliant to stress. A balanced brain brings freedom from fear, worry and even addictions that have stood in the way of you experiencing more fullfillment and joy.
Hello Jason, this is an unusually thoughtful discussion. Thank you for all your expertise and your kind manner of presenting and moderating it. I’m wondering if you have any experience with this: ever since I’ve been exposed to theta wave music, without headphones, I have found it irritating. And this is in spite of the fact that when I was first handed a CD by someone I knew well and trusted he was so confident I’d love it It didn’t occur to either of us that I might not. This happened again recently, which is about 10 years later, when I heard it playing overhead at an acupuncture clinic. I felt restless and even irritated, unable to zone out, which is unusual for me, during the treatment. I realized that the quality of my irritation was similar to what I’d felt listening to that CD a decade ago.So I asked if it was theta wave music and she said yes. The acupuncturist said that some people, but a vast minority, really dislike the music. She said that the few people who dislike it are not simply neutral, but actively dislike it. And she also said, but most people like it a lot. I’m just wondering what kind of factors might be present that would make a person feel so irritated by this music?
The formal name for this process is called the “frequency following response”, where the human brain will literally “follow” a specific frequency/beat after being exposed to it for (usually) about 8 minutes. Technically the definitive term “entrainment” does not exactly match the actual process of what is happening to your brain when listening to these audios, but its close enough, and the name has stuck now with these products becoming more popular and widely known.
I would like to share with you my experience after using EquiSync for three weeks. First of all, I am so amazed how fast I can put myself in a meditation state. During meditation, I feel some kind of a sensation I could not explain. I feel the rain dropping on my face and sometimes my legs. I feel the breeze of a tropical weather as if I was in the forest. I always sleep for a very short time at night and I have a very high sense of smell all my life. Using equisync I still sleep less, but am more relaxed when I wake up. During meditation, I can also smell the forest as if I am in the forest.
The frequencies embedded into each NeuralSync™ audio integrate three audible tones with a fourth subliminal pulse. This inclusion of both audible and subliminal entrainment engages brainwaves far more efficiently than single protocols such as standard meditation practices, binaural beats or isochronic tones. Because this waveform is also balanced, it compels both sides of the brain into hemispheric synchronization much more easily and effectively than other methods.
This BRAINWAVE MIND VOYAGES 24 CD SET includes the following BMV CDs: Lucid Dreaming, Astral Trance, Alpha Brainwaves, Theta Brainwaves, Delta Brainwaves, Tones, Astral Vibrations, Remote Viewing, Beta Brainwaves, Lucid Dream Cycle, Lucid Dreams Hypnosis, Guided Dream Incubation, The Whales CD, Rainstorm, The Waters CD, Nature Sounds, Heartbeat Meditation CD, The Om Meditation, Ganzfeld Effect/ White Noise, Breathing Silent Mindfulness, Breathwork Yoga Yogic Breathing Techniques, Tibetan Singing Bowls, Schumann Resonance, Sacred Healing Frequencies Solfeggio Healing Tones - Using embedded brainwave neurotechnologies, your brainwaves will become tuned to the specifically chosen brainwave ranges. For centuries, it has taken years of physical, mental and spiritual training to achieve peak states of consciousness. It is now possible to induce any specifically chosen state of consciousness. Now, you can tune your brainwaves to specifically designed brainwave states, simply by listening to a Brainwave Mind Voyages CDs. PEAK EXPERIENCES AT THE TOUCH OF A BUTTON! Your awareness will become free to explore new states of clarity as you experience the effects of the embedded brainwave entrainment technology. Your conscious awareness will become free to take flight into your mind's eye. You will explore new depths as the embedded brainwave entrainment ensures that you will enter the ideal brainwave range for maximizing your brain power. Brainwave Entrainment Technology- Advanced Brainwave Training- Multi-channel binaural beats/binaural beat frequencies- Monophonic brainwave entrainment tones - New BMV entrainment technique that works without the use of headphones! Autonomic Audio Pacing Technology (AAPT) - Only found on BMV CDs! Cutting-Edge Vibrational Sound Therapy- 3D Psychoacoustic Soundscapes. Geniuses like Albert Einstein, Nikola Tesla, Jefferson, Edison and many others have utilized their natural brainwave states and now, you can too by listening to these CDs!
Theta stimulation: There appears to be no benefit associated with using theta stimulation for cognitive functioning, mood, or stress relief. While theta may be a useful way to induce sleep or alter your state of consciousness, there really isn’t much science supporting entrainment in this particular range for most purposes. Photic stimulation of theta between 5 Hz and 7 Hz can be useful for headaches.
Then in my own research regarding my life-long hypertension and its resistance to medication, I became very concerned when I learned that 145/95 is the gateway to dementia. At that time my BP was consistently 145/95. Then, even worse, it started to become routinely 161/106. I was simply unwilling to take more medication with all its attendant side effects, so I started researching natural solutions. I became aware of a breathing apparatus which sold for $300 that would help me train myself to deep breathe, thereby reducing my blood pressure. $300 seemed like a lot, but not in the scheme of saving my life. I started thinking. I already knew how to breathe from my brief studies in Chi Gung. I simply needed something to help me focus my mind. I tried using the Chi Gung breathing while simply counting 200 breaths. It worked for a short while, but I quickly became far too bored, even though I knew it could be a lifesaving measure. I had been considering EquiSync for sometime, and realized it was much less expensive than a $300 breathing regulator, and that it might serve a dual purpose. So I purchased the entire suite.
I received my order on Mon. and have done 3 or 4 sessions of Equisync I. I just wanted to say I can already notice a difference in myself. I am much calmer and more clear thinking already in just 2 days. I don’t think it’s my mind playing tricks on me. Is this a common occurrence? Your product is great I can’t wait to try Equisync II and Equisync III.
John and Doug discuss how to be a better you - how you should always be available to what you can learn. You have to show up to whatever you experience and do the best you can do in that moment. For John, his daily practice helped improve 30% in spirituality, in health, and in mental intelligence. A person can become a champion as they continue to practice. Discipline and motivation increases - it becomes deeper. When you learn about practice, you can accomplish way beyond what you thought … [Read more...]
In 1956, the famous neuroscientist W. Gray Walter published the results of studying thousands of test subjects using photic stimulation, showing their change in mental and emotional states. He also learned that photic stimulation not only altered brainwaves, but that these changes were occurring in areas of the brain outside of vision. In Walter’s words:
Use Holosync® to accelerate the process (our data tells us that Holosync® creates the benefits of traditional meditation about 8x faster, but without spending several hours each day). Holosync® is faster, and it is easier. And, because you begin, the first time you listen, meditating like a 30+ year veteran, you see results quickly. Finally, Holosync® feels so good, and in fact causes you to feel good for the entire day when you use it, that the problem of getting yourself to meditate each day disappears.
Theta brainwaves are the next level down from alpha, at a range of 4Hz-8Hz. These brainwaves commonly occur just before sleep, or in the lighter stages of sleep. They also occur while you are day dreaming, or when you experience a strong emotion. It is not so common for an adult to produce prolonged theta brainwaves unless they are an experienced meditator, or perhaps deeply involved in an intuitive art such as music or painting. A dominant theta brainwave state is one of deep relaxation (deeper than alpha) and natural healing. In prolonged dominant theta states, the brain’s sodium/potassium ratio resets and balances itself, curing mental fatigue, and improving the brain cells ability to transport and exchange neuro-chemicals. Without the means of deep meditation, or brainwave entrainment technology, this benefit would only otherwise come from sleeping or napping.Theta is known as the one of the best states for communication with the subconscious mind.
Controlled or pre/post studies of the effects of BWE using auditory or visual stimulation were eligible for inclusion, provided pulses of light or tone were delivered at frequencies hypothesised to have a beneficial effect or in line with a protocol addressing clinical outcomes. Studies were required to report clinical or psychological outcomes (measured using standard methods or as deemed appropriate by peer review) and to report statistical analysis. Studies of outcomes such as electroencephalogram (EEG) response or neurotransmitter levels were not eligible. Case studies were excluded.