Thanks for the reply. I am now clearer on ‘what’ is heard. Can you expand or point me in direction ..a bit more about ‘pitch frequency’ and frequency spoken about and what exactly is the difference ..and how we use the higher pitch frequencies to ‘hear’ or become aware of them? Would you only pick up the low freq on a EEG?. sorry for being pedantic ..it still does not clear up split isochronics and possibly creating same situation as binaural beats..
Generally speaking, the brain will usually entrain to the strongest stimulus which would be isochronic tones over binaural beats. So when you see people add binaural beats at a different frequency to the isochronic tones, that would not produce additional brainwave entrainment at another frequency. If they are both at the same frequency I haven’t seen any research to indicate whether that would be beneficial or not, but my belief is that it would weaken the potential for entrainment. When you look at the waveform of an isochronic tone there is a distinct empty space between each beat, making it very pronounced and effective. When you add binaural beats at the same frequency it looks like this: http://www.mindamend.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/isochronic-tones-binaural-beats-combined-waveform.jpg. The depth of the waveform is now half as deep and less effective. This is before the binaural beats are formed inside your head, where the waveform is hard to determine and measure. From listening to that type of combination the beats sound much less pronounced, which has to make them much less effective in terms of a brainwave entrainment stimulus, compared to isochronic tones on their own.
The brain has two hemispheres that operate somewhat independently from one another. The two hemispheric structures of the brain are connected by a large nerve, called the corpus callosum, which sends information back and forth between the two sides of the brain. In most people, the left hemisphere controls language, logical thinking, and analytic processes and the right side contains the centers for emotion, intuition, and non-linear creative thinking.

Science, yes. Fiction, no. Every one of these results has been experienced and reported to us by participants in the program we’ve created around Holosync®, our proprietary version of this amazing audio technology. We call the program The Holosync Solution™, and believe me, it really will be the end of your search for a personal growth and mind development tool that really works.
While originally brainwave entrainment was achieved by using pure tones of sound, it is now possible to take these tones and blend them with music, rhythms, and natural sounds, such as the sounds of flowing water, bird sounds, or waves lapping on a beach, creating extended tracts of varied and intriguing brainwave entrainment music for everyday use.
Isochronic tones have only been proven to have an effect while you are listening to them, that’s why you won’t find me claiming anywhere that there are potentially positive long-term effects. Once the tones stop, your brainwaves are no longer being stimulated by the sound and so they stop being in sync with the tone frequency. For you to think you are still feeling the effects after all this time and from such a short time listening to them, I think it may be linked to anxiety. I know that some people who are new to this type of thing can build up a strong feeling of anxiety, after worrying about the potential effects brought on by fear of the unknown. I suspect the problem may be psychological with you worrying about the potential effects and keep repeating the experience from memory in your head. When you keep going over the same thing in your head like that and worrying about it, it’s easy to then spot other potential side-effects like how your nostrils and body temp is feeling, then making links back to that experience and labelling that as the reason. I think the best way to overcome this is to realise that the side-effects you are mentioning are completely unrelated, so there is nothing to worry about. These tracks are literally listened to for millions of hours a month on YouTube across loads of channels. If the effects lasted for a long time people would just listen for 5 minutes and come back in a couple of weeks. But people keep coming back to listen because that’s the only way to feel the benefit and effects…while you are listening to them. If you are unable to stop thinking and worrying about this on our own, I recommend that you speak to your doctor about it or a specialist in dealing with anxiety issues. I hope that helps.
Since it’s humble beginnings, the science of brainwave entrainment has evolved to be one of the most potent and powerful ways to unlock the full potential of the human mind. Our audios have been created by brainwave entrainment engineer, Ashton Aiden, and his years of research, expertise, personal experience, and creativity. We are confident that the audios we offer on this site are of the best quality you will ever find, anywhere.
There are many sources of binaural beats on the internet and YouTube to check-out and experiment with yourself – I recommend using headphones for optimal effectiveness. However, like most things, not all binaural beats are created equally (especially if they are free on the internet) and therefore not as effective or enjoyable to listen to. This is why I HIGHLY recommend the binaural beats created by master audio technician, music producer and meditation teacher, Cory Allen – which can be found here:
Gamma waves are the fastest brainwave frequency range. Gamma brain waves are believed to link and process information from all other parts of the brain. A high amount of gamma wave activity in the brain is associated with intelligence, compassion, focus and feelings of happiness. High levels of gamma brain waves have also been linked to improved memory and an increased sensitivity to sensory input. Low amounts of gamma brainwave activity have been linked to learning difficulties, poor memory and impaired mental processing.

Today, EEG machines are used for diagnosing epilepsy and sleep disorders, for determining dosages for anesthesia, and measuring the brain activity of people in comas or suffering from brain trauma. EEG machines also continue to play a role in researching and understanding brainwave entrainment and developing new and better methods for delivering the benefits of this form of brainwave modification. 
Hi EJ, at the moment, there hasn’t been any research to give an indication of how long you should or shouldn’t listen for. Over time, I’ve seen people use my tracks for longer and longer. I started off providing 30-minute study tracks, but through demand, I extended them to 3-hours. I know from the many thousands of comments I’ve had on YouTube that a large number of people play those 3-hour tracks on repeat, or listen to different ones, one after the other throughout the day. I’ve also seen apps where you can play tracks like mine on continuous repeat. So it’s common for people to listen to them all day while they are studying.

One of the more fascinating aspects of what brainwave entrainment does, long-term, is the growing of your mental threshold, and your self-awareness.  I have been a participant of the Holosync Solution for several years, and its maker, Bill Harris, has gone to great lengths to explain why this technology does this.  Much of his research is based on the concept of Entropy and Open Systems, (an idea that nominated its discoverer for a nobel prize).  The brain being an open system, and the technology being a specific type of entropy, this technology has been shown to help the brain reorganize itself at a “higher level” through the growth of new neural pathways. This basically means that 
Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) is one final type of brainwave that has been studied. SMR, also known as low beta, is a type of brainwave, which occurs in the sensorimotor cortex, in the 12 to 15 hertz range when that area of the sensorimotor cortex is idle and immobile. The purpose of SMR brainwaves is not well understood, but some neurofeedback practitioners report training to increase SMR brainwaves can be beneficial for people with autism, epilepsy, ADD, insomnia, drug addiction, and as an aide to better manage stress.
Recently developed entrainment software has been designed to correct specific imbalances in hemispheric activity associated with undesirable mind-states. For example, people suffering with depression often have more activity in the right hemisphere, and specially designed brainwave music decreases this activity while increasing activity in the left hemisphere, reducing depression.
Anyone who has sought out different methods for enhancing cognitive ability will probably have come across a technique known as Brainwave Entrainment. However, it is a fairly niche area of brain training, meaning that this form of stimulation is often overlooked in favour of more mainstream methods. The following outlines what Brainwave Entrainment actually is, how it is used, and some of the benefits attributed to it.
Combine Advanced Brainwave Entrainment with the Included Ambient Music or Nature Sounds, or your own iTunes Music * Includes Binaural Programs for Sleep, Focus, Memory, Energy, Positive Mood, Confidence, Anxiety Relief, Stress Relief, Relaxation, Meditation and much more! * Use the Included Playlist Creator to create an iTunes Playlist for each Program * Can also run alongside apps like Spotify, YouTube, TuneIn, Podcasts, or Audio Book Readers * Universal iOS app with UIs included for iPad, iPhone, and iPod Touch, so you can use it on all your supported devices! * Also Supports Family Share *
Isochronic tones and Monaural beats are now being considered by many to be more effective and more useful in brainwave entrainment technology. Monaural beats, unlike binaural beats, only use one beat. It is said that these are easier on the brain, and help to induce a specific brainwave state faster and more effectively, as the brain does not need to go through the process of reconciling two different frequencies. 

So, I tried those frequencies. And after listening to the 1st one (High Beta to Gamma, Isochronic tones: 18HZ ramped up to 40HZ within 20 minutes) – I immediately stood up and started organizing! (Something that I kept forgetting to do!) Overall, I’ve found that isochronic tones & monaural beats are more immediately effective than binaural beats, though they are still good.


Many psychologists, doctors, teachers, and other professionals have endorsed the technology while personally taking advantage of the limitless benefits that accompany EquiSync's precisely designed brainwave synchronization/ entrainment technology. It is such a profound field of study that many of the metaphysical benefits, those beyond our current scientific measure and technological & philosophical understanding, have yet to be discovered.

Thanks for the reply. I am now clearer on ‘what’ is heard. Can you expand or point me in direction ..a bit more about ‘pitch frequency’ and frequency spoken about and what exactly is the difference ..and how we use the higher pitch frequencies to ‘hear’ or become aware of them? Would you only pick up the low freq on a EEG?. sorry for being pedantic ..it still does not clear up split isochronics and possibly creating same situation as binaural beats..
I am fortunate to be working with Deepak Chopra, M.D., and Dr. Rudy Tanzi, co-authors of the bestselling book Super Brain, on a technology called Brain Wave Entrainment. Deepak is very well known, but Rudy is an amazingly interesting person as well. He is the Kennedy Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School and Vice-Chair of Neurology at Mass General Hospital. Rudy co-discovered three of the four original Alzheimer's genes and today runs the Alzheimer's Genome Project. He also plays the keyboards, including, at times, for Aerosmith. He is kind of a real life "Buckaroo Banzai."
Isochronic tones work by influencing your brainwave activity and they can’t directly affect the body. That said, the brain does control the body, so sensations and feelings can sometimes be felt in the body after stimulating your brainwave activity. Some people who are new listeners of this type of audio can sometimes feel tingling sensations in their body. Not everyone feels this and these sensations usually stop once you get more used to using the audios. Isochronic tones are considered as a safe technology. However, sometimes they can leave you feeling temporarily fatigued, especially if you listen to them for an extended period (hours) when you first start using them. If you felt fatigued, I would recommend using them for a much shorter period while you are getting used to them and ensure you are well-hydrated.
***NOTE: (Last one) Please do research on which brainwaves do what before just trying out the first track you find! Also read descriptions of what frequencies are being used in the track, so you know what you are training your brain to! (Example: You struggle with OCD and have some anxiety. You see a track titled “Clear, Focused Thinking” and you try it out w/o reading the description. You either do not experience anything or you end up with worse anxiety/headache than before. If you knew before starting, that your problems were caused by too much Beta wave activity in your brain and the track was all low Beta ramping up to high Beta – you would not listen to it!)
So if you are interested in using brainwave entrainment music in your own recording, do so with the knowledge that it can only help to improve the quality of your work. But please don’t feel as though your recordings will be insufficient without it (some people do worry about this - unnecessarily). My advice is that if you ever find yourself in a situation where the music you love the most is not available with brainwave entrainment frequencies, don’t ignore your intuition and discard that music in favour of music that is. When you find that piece of music that brings your recording to life, go with it whether it has brainwave entrainment frequencies or not. The quality and feel of the music itself are the most important factors.
Yes, brainwave entrainment is based upon science. It has been scientifically proven to work, and to benefit the brain in all kinds of amazing ways. Yes people use things like EEG machines to read how it works on the brain. BUT, this does not mean it is overly complicated, and it does not mean that you have to be overly techy or scientific, or have any experience in neurology at all to create a brainwave entrainment audio or understand how it works.

Let's check in with another expert, chemistry professor Thomas Taylor from the Texas A&M. Taylor hooked a load of students up to an EEG machine (like you see in the movies with the sticky plastic pads with wires stuck all over people's heads) in an attempt to analyse 'synthesis thinking' - which is basically a nerd's way of saying "find out how people come up with new and creative ways to solve a problem".
Deep relaxation is a major benefit resulting from the brain’s cortical frequency following response. By selecting the desired rate the brain, via the frequency following response, will tend to mimic the rate it is exposed to and thus enter that brainwave state. This helps to explain why this technology can produce benefits commonly found with meditation. One of the most valuable benefits of consistent  brainwave entrainment is that we are able to experience and recognize the various states of consciousness. With practice we can learn how to re-create these states.
Unleash your mental power with advanced brainwave entrainment technologies from mindmachines.com.  Relaxation, meditation, sleep, accelerated learning, peak sports performance,  motivation, stress relief, behavior modification, freedom from anxiety and more are possible with the push of a button with this powerful mind entrainment technology.  By altering brainwave your brainwave frequencies using frequency controlled patterns of light and sound these and many more brainwave states can be achieved in just minutes.  Why spend years learning to meditate when you can do in instantly with this a mind machine.

There appeared to be some evidence that 10 Hz stimulation (alpha waves) improved anxiety, but it wasn’t statistically significant. A study that utilized a ramping format of alpha to theta to delta waves (over the course of 10 minutes) found a significant improvement in anxiety. In terms of long-term stress, there is evidence that alpha and beta stimulation improved measures of “competence” and “emotional exhaustion.”

Absolutely. Binaural beats were first discovered over 150 years ago, and their use in brainwave entrainment audio has been the subject of a great deal of scientific exploration over the last 35 years in particular. Millions of people use brainwave entrainment music to enhance their quality of life and to experience deep relaxation. In fact, brainwave entrainment technology is now used for more than just meditation. It is also used by a variety of practitioners and private users for improving self-confidence, stress relief, pain management, relaxation, improving and concentration and improving the quality of one's sleep. If you would like to read an objective third party report on binaural beats, please refer to this Wikipedia article.
Filed Under: iAwake Weekly Call, Life Optimization, Meaning of Life, Meditation Technology, Practice of Meditation, Profound Meditation Program, Spiritual Development, Waking Up Tagged With: Benefits of Brainwave Entrainment Meditation, Changing Our Brains, Conscious Evolution, Life Optimization, Meditation Technology, practice of meditation, Spiritual Development, spiritual practice, Waking Up
And this is exactly true. Have you heard about walnuts improving your memory and being extremely healthy for you when eaten raw? A doctor can confirm this information for you. Try eating too many of them, especially in the afternoon – you will end up nauseous, and if you have a relatively low blood pressure, you can even drive yourself to a nearly unconscious state. Except for their healthy benefits, walnuts tend to lower blood pressure, and when eaten in excess, they can have some very nasty effects on your body. Does this mean you should never eat walnuts, and never benefit from their wonderful qualities? Of course not!

Are you someone who has turned to meditation or yoga as a way of relieving stress and improving your overall well-being? Yoga and meditation are time-proven methods, used for centuries, which restore mental, physical, and spiritual balance in people’s lives, and brainwave entrainment can be used in conjunction with these practices for even deeper levels of benefit. 

Not only do certain brain wave rhythms get strengthened as a result of entrainment, but a dominant frequency band results in a different state of awareness. Those that have used a quality brainwave entrainment product can vouch for the fact that their perception is altered by their brain waves. Not only could this be due to brainwave changes, but it may be a result of increased interhemispheric communication.
I like it. I like the fact that I can just sit there and observe my thoughts and feelings and then go back to watching my breathing. It really does teach me to be centered and balanced. I look forward to the next several weeks. By the way, what I am doing now is meditating for 23 minutes in the early morning and again 23 minutes in the early evening. I’ll check back with you.
I was diagnosed with “acute high anxiety, major clinical depression,and ptsd” 16 years ago. I have clinically addressed these disorders with a number of medications, which none have helped. I am so lucky I have found this simple easy to practice method of practice, that I have found these beats and tones so essential that I indoctrinated them into my daily life, and have come to the realization, that someday very soon I will awake and will not suffer from these burdens these disorders ever again.

5) Your cerebral blood flow is being increased - CBF is associated with many forms of mental disorders, including anxiety, depression, attentional problems, behavior disorders and impaired cognitive function. CBF tends to lower as we age often causing cognitive decline. People experiencing depressed mood usually have lower levels of CBF in the left frontal and prefrontal lobes.
Isochronic tones have only been proven to have an effect while you are listening to them, that’s why you won’t find me claiming anywhere that there are potentially positive long-term effects. Once the tones stop, your brainwaves are no longer being stimulated by the sound and so they stop being in sync with the tone frequency. For you to think you are still feeling the effects after all this time and from such a short time listening to them, I think it may be linked to anxiety. I know that some people who are new to this type of thing can build up a strong feeling of anxiety, after worrying about the potential effects brought on by fear of the unknown. I suspect the problem may be psychological with you worrying about the potential effects and keep repeating the experience from memory in your head. When you keep going over the same thing in your head like that and worrying about it, it’s easy to then spot other potential side-effects like how your nostrils and body temp is feeling, then making links back to that experience and labelling that as the reason. I think the best way to overcome this is to realise that the side-effects you are mentioning are completely unrelated, so there is nothing to worry about. These tracks are literally listened to for millions of hours a month on YouTube across loads of channels. If the effects lasted for a long time people would just listen for 5 minutes and come back in a couple of weeks. But people keep coming back to listen because that’s the only way to feel the benefit and effects…while you are listening to them. If you are unable to stop thinking and worrying about this on our own, I recommend that you speak to your doctor about it or a specialist in dealing with anxiety issues. I hope that helps.
I can’t thank you guys enough for saving my life. I tell everybody I know about your guys. I love you guys. I word of mouth advertise and give my testimony to the power of your technology almost everyday. I am only 30 years old, but since I was 17 teen years old my life was a miserable roller coaster ride. I ended up being diagnosed with fibromyalsia, bipolar disorder, adhd, manic depression, sever anxiety, severe depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, and you name it. Because of your product, I have never felt better in my entire life. I can cope and manage and more. I can finally sleep a full night without tossing and turning waking to knots in my back and stomach. I can finally stand straight and tall without feeling like I have a pinched nerve in my neck. I have energy again, and a renewed passion for life!
The formal name for this process is called the “frequency following response”, where the human brain will literally “follow” a specific frequency/beat after being exposed to it for (usually) about 8 minutes.  Technically the definitive term “entrainment” does not exactly match the actual process of what is happening to your brain when listening to these audios, but its close enough, and the name has stuck now with these products becoming more popular and widely known.

My voice is relaxing and relaxation is pleasurable. These mental directives soothingly lull your conscious mind into ending its internal dialogue. It is the conscious mind that does ALL of the worrying, nagging, second-guessing and basically all of the incessant mental chatter and constant inner dialogue that can keep us trapped by our own view of reality, whether these views are good for us or not.
The good news is there are loads of guided meditations which will not only take you into theta brain waves, but will make you feel good about yourself at the unconscious level too. These are some of my favourite types of brainwave entrainment - and you can get them on topics such as money, confidence, creativity, success, relationships, weight loss, smoking and more.
I just want to write another email about how happy I am with your product, Equisync I, or the alpha waves. I dont think I have ever been so relaxed in my entire life. When I get sink into the state, it feels like a huge electric blanket is pulsing through my body, a really warm, swirling feeling, and my mind is very inactive. I am a meditator without your product. I am able to enter witness consciousness fairly easy on my own sometimes during the day in activity. This isnt the heart oriented feeling of bliss or expansion, but it still is great for the body/mind. This is great though, as it seems to fully relax me. I still believe, that for one to really see dramatic results, meditation should be a way of life. Considering how many of us, spend most of our day unconscious, not aware of the witness or the self, an hour a day is better than nothing, but would be best to be proactive during the day, watching. Keep up the great work and thank you for your product and research.
I am one of the fortunate ones who received a free demo of your product. I do believe your product corrected damage to my brain from a childhood concussion. Immediately upon use, I became aware of sounds, drainage and even discomfort behind my right eye and the lower right side of my skull. This continued for a week of using the product daily. I was about to give up using the product when all discomfort stopped, and has not returned. I do believe your product should be used for childhood head trauma. Even though the brain is only bruised, a life can be altered immensely. I love my Equisync II and will use it daily and with confidence.
This thing blows my mind! The first time I used it I was like "No way!" As I kept using it I discovered that it is literally the only way I am able to fall asleep nights when my mind is so full of thoughts and my anxiety is running rampant! I hate the way sleep aids make me feel like I've been run over by a freight train. I recently switched from using "Deep Sleep" to "Dreamy Sleep" and had the craziest dreams! I normally can't remember my dreams and I was actually able to recall quite a bit of them. Unfortunately last night, I dreamt that I faked the death of my dog last year and I felt like it lasted the whole night so I think I'll be switching back to "Deep Sleep" :( Awesome product though. My *only* complaint is that I wish there were more ambiance options or the ability to use it with Pandora. You can use your own music but I don't have much personal music on my phone so I am limited to using the app's ambiance tracks and they get old after a while. Highly recommend!
I was using Jeffrey Thompson brainwave cd material for several weeks and suddenly developed severe anxiety, headaches in the forehead and dizziness and confusion . I stopped but the symptoms are still with me a week later. Will these symptoms go away? This isn’t some bad kundalini awakens g it something is it ? Will I get better snd how long will it take to go away? Message me at eurydice@cruzio.com or message me in FB at Nicholas Pierotti (the guy in the hat hugging his daughter ) Please let me know
Unleash your mental power with advanced brainwave entrainment technologies from mindmachines.com.  Relaxation, meditation, sleep, accelerated learning, peak sports performance,  motivation, stress relief, behavior modification, freedom from anxiety and more are possible with the push of a button with this powerful mind entrainment technology.  By altering brainwave your brainwave frequencies using frequency controlled patterns of light and sound these and many more brainwave states can be achieved in just minutes.  Why spend years learning to meditate when you can do in instantly with this a mind machine.
You’ll learn about the science behind Holosync®, how it works, what happened as over 2.2 million others used it, and much more. This book means so much to Holosync® users that many bring it to public events so I can autograph it for them. Embarrassing for me, but also a compliment—and evidence of how much Thresholds of the Mind means to those who’ve read it.
AVE is capable of producing situationally appropriate brain wave frequencies through the process of entrainment (the tendency of physiological processes to mirror environmental stimuli). AVE also increases cerebral blood flow (blood flow in the brain) and increases the metabolization of glucose in the brain for improved functioning of the neurons. The combined outcome of these processes is improved mental performance. It is an effective, inexpensive alternative therapy for many disorders such as anxiety, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), PTSD, Fibromyalgia and chronic pain. Our AVE devices are also used successfully to boost physical performance for athletes, academic performance for students and cognitive performance for seniors.
   If you're ready to take advantage of this course... experience true, effective life-betterment... improve your mind, your life, your relationships and the whole world around you... and simply life your life to the peak of its potential... ORDER NOW via our secure order form, and I'll make sure you get the first level sent to you - right away, free of charge!
This is the reason why I stress that one should ALWAYS read the instructions provided by the brainwave entrainment product creator, and always do their due diligence in researching the source of any products they purchase. When using a high quality product, these instructions are clear, precise, and always backed up by an extensive network of support and additional information. The product creators who have put in the necessary amount of effort and time to come up with a high quality product always make sure that you don’t get it wrong. 
The frequencies embedded into each NeuralSync™ audio integrate three audible tones with a fourth subliminal pulse. This inclusion of both audible and subliminal entrainment engages brainwaves far more efficiently than single protocols such as standard meditation practices, binaural beats or isochronic tones. Because this waveform is also balanced, it compels both sides of the brain into hemispheric synchronization much more easily and effectively than other methods.
Brainwave entrainment is a field of study and endeavor founded in the same physiological and psychological processes that make music, drumming, and chanting so powerful as methods for transforming the mind and spirit and aiding in healing of the body. These processes involve how the electrical energy in our brains synchronizes with sounds and visual stimuli, producing a particular brainwave frequency and its associated mental states. 
Unlike many traditional therapies for dealing with stress, anxiety, depression or cognitive impairment, entrainment does not require a focused effort from the person having the therapy, as the brain instinctively follows the frequency. This makes it a much more effective therapy for managing some of these challenging conditions, by automatically inducing a sense of relaxation and a reduction in negative physical and emotional patterns.
By the 1980s, entrainment technology had merged with advancements in microelectronics technology, making it possible to develop even more sophisticated audio and visual brainwave entrainment products for the marketplace. In the last two decades, a number of scientific studies have reported brainwave entrainment as an effective remedy for ADD, academic learning problems, and improving memory and cognition.
Stay focused, and get MORE done in less time – Imagine, just knowing what you needed to do and having the focus, clarity and dedication to just get out there and do it. Ambitions on the back burner start to come alive... business ideas take off... the right people suddenly appear at the right time. How would things change if you seemingly just "magically" attracted the people you need in your life?
Isochronic tones are basically just a single tone with the volume being turned on and off at regular intervals. When you apply the same effects to music or a noise, it’s usually referred to as amplitude entrainment effects (in Mind Workstation anyway). When you apply the on/off effect to music or noise it’s usually done by targeting a specific frequency range in the sound and only turning that part on/off, leaving the rest of the music/noise untouched. What that does is allow parts of the music/noise to play without being distorted/interrupted, making it sound more pleasant to listen to. It produces a kind of fluttering sound as I like to call it and you can adjust the level of intensity.
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