Clinical testing of Brain Sync programs resulted in a record-breaking 87% success rate. They are offered to patients at America's most prestigious hospitals such as Sloan Kettering and Dana Farber Institutes. EEG studies conducted at Harvard Body Mind Medical School, and UCLA concluded that Kelly Howell's Brain Wave Audio Technology® prompts brain activity into extraordinary body-mind states. Vist our Research Findings page for a full list of articles from the Harvard Medical School, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and Psychology Today that concur: the benefits of guided meditation, binaural beats, brainwave entrainment and positive subliminal messaging are real and profound. To learn more see this article about brainwaves in Scientific American.


Insomnia: Perhaps one of the most promising uses of brainwave entrainment technology is for those struggling with insomnia. While the technology is unlikely to provide a “cure” it may help those who have a high level of arousal or are “keyed-up” – reduce their level of internal arousal and sleep. Specifically insomnia that is induced by excess stress (e.g. beta activity) would likely benefit from slower wave stimulation (e.g. alpha activity) to aid the brain in transitioning into sleep.
I first became aware of brainwave meditation programs  and brain waves when researching alternative methods for treating the bipolar disorder I had been unsuccessfully living with my entire adult life. I eventually learned a method of releasing difficult emotions on the spot, which I then practiced extensively, and consequently found it easier and even desirable to meditate for fairly lengthy periods of time. Though I took up meditation as a serious daily practice and experienced many undeniable benefits, I nonetheless intermittently experienced life-debilitating bouts of mania and severe depression, often resulting in chaotic mixed states and an inability to maintain daily social functions. During these times, it became nearly impossible to sit in meditation.
This is good to understand because this is another area where people can make huge promises that may or may not be true. Even in this realm, there is a level of practicality that can be followed. Even meditating at the rate of a super-human monk is not going to “magically solve all your problems”. This technology cannot pick negative beliefs out of your head and implant positive ones just by influencing your brainwaves. It cannot just make you a different person.
I have also noticed that during my morning meditation session (I use the product twice daily – once in the morning and again at night), I’m able to almost instantly reach extremely deep levels of relaxation. In fact, within minutes I lose all sensation in my extremities. This is exactly like yogic meditation’s pratyahara, or sense withdrawal, state. It’s really quite remarkable that I could get that relaxed that quickly. This process usually takes me anywhere between a half an hour and an hour and a half. With EquiSync, I reach the same state in literally 2 to 5 minutes!

True on your point about diminishing returns. It is like dieting. The bulk of the weight comes off at the beginning and then you lose a pound or so if you are diligent. Yes you lose the high of the original gains but you don’t receive more gains because you are in a better place. I am a big believer in data. When the gains begin to be less obvious a daily entry of how your emotional state was (1-10) and naming something you are grateful for goes a long ways. I guarantee a person will overall be in a better place on average. As always, thanks for your contributions Daniel.
A crossover RCT of a single session of theta stimulation in four healthy adults reported no significant improvement in verbal fluency or attention associated with the intervention and a reduction in immediate recall. Controlled comparisons reported significant benefit from the intervention in all three outcomes measured. Six pre/post studies reported significant benefit from the intervention for 19 of 28 cognitive outcomes.
While a practical understanding of brainwaves has been around for as long as people have been singing, chanting, and drumming, a scientific view of the electrical activity inside the human brain was not published until 1924 when German psychiatrist Hans Berger developed a machine for sensing and recording activity in the brain by attaching small electrical sensors to the scalp of his patients and recording the resulting electrical activity. Berger’s inventions and discoveries were built upon the earlier work of Richard Caton who published animal studies on brainwave oscillations in 1875.

The formal name for this process is called the “frequency following response”, where the human brain will literally “follow” a specific frequency/beat after being exposed to it for (usually) about 8 minutes.  Technically the definitive term “entrainment” does not exactly match the actual process of what is happening to your brain when listening to these audios, but its close enough, and the name has stuck now with these products becoming more popular and widely known.


You’ll learn about the science behind Holosync®, how it works, what happened as over 2.2 million others used it, and much more. This book means so much to Holosync® users that many bring it to public events so I can autograph it for them. Embarrassing for me, but also a compliment—and evidence of how much Thresholds of the Mind means to those who’ve read it.
I also suffer with migraine for the last 15 years of my life. So, when I know I am going to have a headache I will start meditating and headache suddenly subsided. What an amazing thing you have created here. This is only three weeks of my experience. How much more what I can do after…………By the way I am 49 years old. I just want to thank you so very much for sharing this amazing tape with me. It is so worth it in all aspect. I wish you all the best. How I wish that our paths will cross one day.

A crossover RCT of a single session of theta stimulation in four healthy adults reported no significant improvement in verbal fluency or attention associated with the intervention and a reduction in immediate recall. Controlled comparisons reported significant benefit from the intervention in all three outcomes measured. Six pre/post studies reported significant benefit from the intervention for 19 of 28 cognitive outcomes.
No matter what you use: USE it. At least for a couple weeks.  And have realistic expectations...  Brainwave Entrainment is not some pill or quick solution (even if there are some sessions that usually give almost immediate results e.g. for sleep induction or pain relief), it is a tool that requires training and works best in combination with good breathing / meditation techniques.
I have never been more creative, productive, more loving to all people nor have I ever been happier in my life. All the wisdom I have found in my pursuit of happiness was somewhere in my intellect. Now it is a part of me. I am using it. I now consider myself a model for younger people to let them see how it is possible to function and be everything they’ve wanted to be. I just celebrated my 85th birthday and I am as young as when I was 25. Thank you for giving me the gift of my true self.
“A light sound machine is a brainwave entrainment tool.  Using sound (headphones) & light (strobe light goggles) stimulation, listeners are gently guided into specific brainwave states. Each audio beat and pulse is a specific frequency. Our minds ‘think’ in terms of frequency. Brainwaves change frequencies based on neural activity within the brain. Hearing and vision are considered the favorable senses for affecting brainwaves safely. By presenting beats and pulses to the brain, the brain begins to mimic or follow the same frequencies. This process is referred to as entrainment. In essence, these instruments speak to the mind in it’s own language – the language of frequency.”
Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) is one final type of brainwave that has been studied. SMR, also known as low beta, is a type of brainwave, which occurs in the sensorimotor cortex, in the 12 to 15 hertz range when that area of the sensorimotor cortex is idle and immobile. The purpose of SMR brainwaves is not well understood, but some neurofeedback practitioners report training to increase SMR brainwaves can be beneficial for people with autism, epilepsy, ADD, insomnia, drug addiction, and as an aide to better manage stress.
The eyes of the participants were closed and the VFP goggles illuminated in alternative manner; first the right eye, then the left. The rate at which the photic stimulation was conducted ranged between 0.5 Hz and 50 Hz. Of the 50 patients with migraines, 49 considered their headache as having been “helped” by the stimulation and 36 noted that their headache had completely “stopped” from the VFP goggles.
Binaural beats were the first method discovered for brainwave entrainment and works by delivering tones of different audible frequencies to the two ears with the difference in frequency between the two tones being the frequency of entrainment. The difference in frequency between the two tones must be less than 30 hertz, and this resulting frequency is called a beat or the target frequency, and it is processed in a brain region called the olivary body. When listening to such tones with stereo headphones, the two hemispheres of the brain become synchronized at the target frequency.

Sleep improvement: There is significant anecdotal evidence that sleep induction and/or quality may be improved as a result of brainwave entrainment. While it is important to consider the placebo effect or simply the effect of a relaxing sound, many people have reported noticeable improvements in their ability to fall asleep and wake up feeling refreshed as a result of entrainment. Entraining frequencies within the slower wave ranges such as alpha, theta, or delta, may help individuals transition more quickly to those states.


My voice is relaxing and relaxation is pleasurable. These mental directives soothingly lull your conscious mind into ending its internal dialogue. It is the conscious mind that does ALL of the worrying, nagging, second-guessing and basically all of the incessant mental chatter and constant inner dialogue that can keep us trapped by our own view of reality, whether these views are good for us or not.
I’ve been using equisync first thing in the morning after I get up, and listen to all three tracks in a row. I again listen to all three tracks in the late afternoon. If I don’t have that much time available, I will start on Track 2 or 3, as necessary. I have really started to focus on my breathing, and notice the difference – I finish the session in a DEEPLY relaxed state.
I first became aware of brainwave meditation programs  and brain waves when researching alternative methods for treating the bipolar disorder I had been unsuccessfully living with my entire adult life. I eventually learned a method of releasing difficult emotions on the spot, which I then practiced extensively, and consequently found it easier and even desirable to meditate for fairly lengthy periods of time. Though I took up meditation as a serious daily practice and experienced many undeniable benefits, I nonetheless intermittently experienced life-debilitating bouts of mania and severe depression, often resulting in chaotic mixed states and an inability to maintain daily social functions. During these times, it became nearly impossible to sit in meditation.
You may already have a good feel for where each of the different brainwave states takes you, and know intuitively what will work for you the best on a day-to-day basis with your meditation practice. If you are a little fuzzy about the differences between the brainwave states, however, and would like to have a really clear, visceral sense of what each state does for you and how they resonate with you physically, mentally, and emotionally, one way you can find out is to listen to Harmonic … [Read more...]
I have been using the Equisync CDs at least 24 minutes 5 days a week. It instantly relaxes me, helps get rid of headaches and even hiccups! I have a stressful job and it helps prevent anxiety; I have not had a chance to check my blood pressure but I feel calmer. I have used other products before but I like the Equisync CDs much better; it is deeper and more relaxing.
Maya Mendoza is a published author of 3 personal development books. She has run an NLP / EFT Practice for 29 years helping clients transform problems into personal power. Maya is also a accomplished copywriter and well known Digital Marketing & Social Social Media Strategist - Specializing in Google+ for business. She was named "best marketing consultant" in Glasgow, UK in 2013.  
Anyone who has sought out different methods for enhancing cognitive ability will probably have come across a technique known as Brainwave Entrainment. However, it is a fairly niche area of brain training, meaning that this form of stimulation is often overlooked in favour of more mainstream methods. The following outlines what Brainwave Entrainment actually is, how it is used, and some of the benefits attributed to it.
Depression: Currently there is no substantial evidence to support the idea that brainwave entrainment treats depression in adults. Some evidence goes as far as to suggest that the wrong entrainment protocol (e.g. slow wave stimulation) may actually increase certain measures of depression. Stimulation of delta and/or theta, will likely worsen the condition and alpha is unlikely to have an effect.
Basically, the brain produces a phenomenon that results in low-frequency pulsations in the amplitude (volume) and sound localization of a perceived sound when two tones at slightly different frequencies are presented separately, one to each of a person’s ears, using stereo headphones.  A beating tone will be perceived, as if the two tones mixed naturally, out of the brain. The frequencies of the tones must be below 1,000 hertz for the beating to be noticeable. The difference between the two frequencies must be small (less than or equal to 30 Hz) for the effect to occur; otherwise, the two tones will be heard separately, and no beat will be perceived.
As a trader, having focus is not a luxury, it’s a necessity for making the best decisions under pressure. The music and meditations allow me to bring my best game each and every day. I am more tuned into work for longer and better and with a steady energy and calmness. I am also a writer with a fairly high demand on output meaning I need to get a quality 700 to 1800 words of analysis created daily. And again I rely on TrypnauralMediations.com to put my mind at it' most clear and creative. It delivers every time.
In March I started using the CDs that I affectionately call “Meditation for Dummies” and am very pleased with the results so far. My blood pressure has dropped, I am sleeping better and notice that I feel much more calm and less stressed. Instead of feeling that I need to “find the time” in my schedule to meditate, I look forward to that totally relaxing half hour–that peaceful feeling of floating.
So let’s start with the basics, and we can move on from there. An easier way to understand brainwave entrainment would be to think about how your brain gets entrained in real life, without the use of any technology. Have you ever heard a song on the radio that stuck into your mind throughout the day and maybe even the next one? Now think about a repeating sound, like the ticking of a clock – simply listening to it your brain starts producing alpha waves that match that tick-tack sound. Or have you ever been at a meeting when you immediately felt sleepy? That is because the majority of people in the room were feeling that same way and your brain simply matched the brain wave patterns they have been emanating. We can go on exemplifying this phenomenon, but the main point is that our brain is altering and adapting in direct response to what we hear, think, and see.

Most programs start at a work/life busy brain Beta frequency of twenty light flashes per second (20Hz) and slowly ramp them down to Alpha (relaxation and meditation) at 8-12 HZ, Theta (deep relaxation and dreaming) at 4-8 Hz) and Delta (dreamless deep relaxation) of .5-4Hz. We have taken measurements at Mass General with state of the art EEG equipment and have seen a slowing of the brain waves from Beta to Theta in two minutes and complete brain wave harmonization in the left, right, anterior, posterior and occipital regions of the brain.
From the deepest, sincere, compassionate, and loving part of my soul; I offer thank you. : ) By saving me, I believe your organization did a service to society as a whole, for now I am like a ripple in a pond that will reverberate good vibes to all who I come into contact with. I express compassion, understanding, and knowledge to all who I see need your life saving, and healing product. Like a missionary I desire to spread it; for it is pure, good and loving to my fellow man.
Theta stimulation: There appears to be no benefit associated with using theta stimulation for cognitive functioning, mood, or stress relief. While theta may be a useful way to induce sleep or alter your state of consciousness, there really isn’t much science supporting entrainment in this particular range for most purposes. Photic stimulation of theta between 5 Hz and 7 Hz can be useful for headaches.
I’m working as a consultant for a new and growing holistic wellness company. I am responsible for determining which products would be the most advantageous for both our patients and for retail sales. I have personally purchased the Equisync I CDs to test them. My daughter suffers from major anxiety. The CDs helps her to relax and be less anxious. I tried it myself one time and it was very effective at putting me into a deep meditative state. I believe that your product works and I would like the wellness company to carry Equisync for patients to use and purchase.

Some people are more sensitive to the audios than others – if you are one of them, be sure to take a break from what you are listening to and come back to it later. Always follow your body’s signals, and don’t hesitate to ask questions. You can always drop me a line for some honest advice on anything related to brainwave entrainment, meditation, holistic health, etc. You can also rest assured that all brainwave entrainment products listed here are of the highest quality – most of them I have used for years. I also highly recommend reading What Is The Best Brainwave Entrainment Product, too.  Don’t feel shy to bother the creators of the products themselves, and their support teams – you are in your full right to do so!


Basically, one frequency of sound plays through one speaker/headphone and a different sound frequency plays in the other speaker/headphone. With these two different frequencies playing in each ear separately, but at the same time, your brain automatically tries to make up the difference in this frequency range and therefore is gently brought into a new, desired brainwave state as described above. An example of this effect would be a 100Hz frequency playing in your left ear and a 105Hz frequency playing in your right ear. Your brain, over several minutes, distinguishes the slight difference in frequencies and automatically adjusts its brainwave state to match this difference – being 5Hz in this example and therefore putting your brainwave into a Theta state. Pretty cool huh?!

So you see, it’s all about where your personal journey is taking you, and what direction of evolution you are wanting to explore.  The purpose of this site is to assist you in making an educated decision about what product is right for you, and to ensure that you are only recommended a high-quality product that will provide you with powerful and noticeable results.  The great news is that many of the benefits of using Brainwave Entrainment (improved sleep patterns, release of anti-aging hormones, whole-brain functioning, etc.) are simply side-effects of using any type of brainwave entrainment audio.
Sir, am a user of subliminals from last 3 months. I’ve used subliminal with and without binaural beats.i found it more effective without binaural beats.and i got results too. But from last few weeks am listening to few subliminals with binaural beats.i donno why ..but i started feeling severe pain on my head and feels too tired and drowsy. I thought its because as it works. But my condition was getting worse. And also I started having fear and scary dreams. I started feeling like too stressed . I listen to 6 subliinals for 6 subjects a day. I read in a website its not a problem to listen 6 subjects a day.and i listen 6 subs for one hour each too…but in the starting i was happy with my results and subliminals.but now am getting scary dreams ..peaceless and fear. Why is this sir. Plse help me…but i love to use subliminals again as i got results. But am scared now. And plse also tell me sir if its okie to use subliminals without binaural beats?? Will they have same effect?? Help me sir…

Filed Under: iAwake Weekly Call, Life Optimization, Meaning of Life, Meditation Technology, Practice of Meditation, Profound Meditation Program, Spiritual Development, Waking Up Tagged With: Benefits of Brainwave Entrainment Meditation, Changing Our Brains, Conscious Evolution, Life Optimization, Meditation Technology, practice of meditation, Spiritual Development, spiritual practice, Waking Up
I received my order on Mon. and have done 3 or 4 sessions of Equisync I. I just wanted to say I can already notice a difference in myself. I am much calmer and more clear thinking already in just 2 days. I don’t think it’s my mind playing tricks on me. Is this a common occurrence? Your product is great I can’t wait to try Equisync II and Equisync III.

When making an educated decision on what product is best for you, it is important to have a general understanding of how the technology works, and what the benefits are of visiting the specific brainwave states.  Please click the link to visit a more detailed article –  How Does Brainwave Entrainment  Work, and the benefits of Alpha, Theta, Delta, and Gamma brainwaves.
Hi Amandeep. I am so sorry to hear you are having these troubles. I am not familiar with Marisa Peers materials, so I cannot comment on this, but I can tell you we have never had an experience like this reported from using the audios we offer on this site. I would cease any and all hypnosis or brainwave entrainment audios, and contact your doctor. The issues you are mentioning sound like they could be a physical issue that may be related to more than the audios you’ve listened to.
Hi EJ, at the moment, there hasn’t been any research to give an indication of how long you should or shouldn’t listen for. Over time, I’ve seen people use my tracks for longer and longer. I started off providing 30-minute study tracks, but through demand, I extended them to 3-hours. I know from the many thousands of comments I’ve had on YouTube that a large number of people play those 3-hour tracks on repeat, or listen to different ones, one after the other throughout the day. I’ve also seen apps where you can play tracks like mine on continuous repeat. So it’s common for people to listen to them all day while they are studying.
After nearly two years of daily use of this brainwave meditation and brainwave technology, I began to enjoy a quality of life–without medication–that once seemed quite impossible for me. I do not say this lightly. Not only did I enjoy a fulfilling life, I also experienced what seemed like significant development in self-concept, values, interpersonal skills, creativity, accelerated learning, intuition, ability to handle stressful situations, self-esteem, sense of purpose, and social awareness.
When blended with musical sounds, brainwave entrainment frequencies induce specific states of mind, which are the result of those brainwaves, delivering them in pleasing and relaxing audio tracts for use with and without stereo headphones. For example, alpha and theta waves, because they exist at the borders between conscious and unconscious thought, are especially rich and useful for tapping into and stimulating subconscious processes.
Only 4 of the participants reported no change as a result of the stimulation. Four years later in a study (1989) by Anderson analyzed LED photic stimulation for the treatment of headaches. There were 60 patients included in the study which involved Variable Frequency Photo-stimulation (VFP) with specialized goggles that contained light-emitting diodes.
If the further development of consciousness and awareness is your ultimate goal, there really is no substitute for actual meditation, of which many techniques are the result of thousands of years of human endeavor and accumulated knowledge and experience. Sure, it's not as easy as putting on headphones and pushing a button, but achieving authentic inner peace and relief from the stresses of human existence will mean so much more to you when earned through the time-tested route of traditional meditation. (Plus, once you learn to actually meditate, you can do it anywhere anytime without having to rely on being plugged in to something!)
  There’s an added bonus feature you get with the Brain Evolution System™: scientific studies indicate that brainwave entrainment can not only enhance normal thinking to higher levels, but can also act as a “mood enhancer” to alleviate depression, chronic fatigue, and related conditions – as well as the physical symptoms brought on my too much stress.
Isochronic tones are the most recent and advanced method for brainwave entrainment audios. With isochronic tones, the same intensity is used for all tones, but they pulsate on and off at different rates. The speed, pattern, and rates of these tones can be changed and altered throughout the recording, and the brain will follow them into desired states. The use of isochronic tones opens up the ability to lead the brain into highly specific states, at specific speeds and intensities. This has opened up the doorway to producing both dominant and subdominant waves(i.e. an alpha brainwave state with subdominant theta waves), and the ability to lead the brain through different waves, at specific speeds (i.e. holding the brain in an alpha state for 10 minutes, then dropping it through theta for 20, and holding it in delta for five before bringing it back into alpha at the end of the recording.) This allows thousands of different possibilities in training the brain, and also makes the process of listening to these types of audios more natural, and more powerful. 
As somewhat of a modern mystic, I have studied altered states of consciousness, but due to my monkey mind, I have only been able to experience them to a very minor degree. I have tried so many methods of meditation to little avail. But I became aware that I would not be able to progress in my spiritual life if I could not achieve at least a modicum of success in meditation.

Creativity: Measuring “creativity” is likely subjective, but many people stuck in a certain dominant brain wave may benefit creatively from shifting the brain wave dominance. Someone who has excess beta waves may fail to relax enough to access certain (potential) creative properties associated with increased alpha waves. Similarly someone stuck in a slow wave state may benefit creatively from increasing beta waves.
I haven’t seen any research relating to using brainwave entrainment/isochronic tones and bodybuilding, so I’m afraid I don’t know how effective it would be to help with that. I have a few different tracks for increasing energy but I recommend this 1-hour track, which would fit better than my shorter tracks for a training session: https://www.mindamend.com/shop/energy-and-motivation/high-energy-builder/. The effects from these tracks are mainly felt while you listen to them, so I recommend listening to the energy tracks while you are training/lifting weights etc. I don’t currently have any tracks to help trigger the testosterone hormone.

The specific benefits and claims from this technology are often disputed and considered scientifically questionable. One problem is that there are few experiments that have utilized brainwave entrainment for the purpose of treating a specific psychological ailment (e.g. insomnia). And the experiments that have been conducted are largely backed by corporations that sell the software; hence it could be speculated that there are conflicts of interest.
I typically feel overwhelmed by the numerous things that need to be accomplished, which leaves me feeling anxious and rushed. This particular combo has really helped me to slow down today and not feel so uptight, which sadly, is not easily accomplished. I use other modalities to shift my body into parasympathetic mode, but I can't seem to stay there. This program seems to be helping dampen down triggers that cause my body to shift into sympathetic state inappropriately.

Quantum success triliminals is literally a goldmine and worth every penny of the approx 1500USD I paid for it. It is a collection of 140 trilliminal recordings on various aspects of life all of which work absolutely perfectly. It's not like other recordings where you use one and then wait around and experience very slight possibly placebo effects or nothing. They literally do what it says on each recording and plant beliefs in your head which take root and eventually become your new patterns for thinking.

There isn’t really a one-size-fits-all track or frequency range which is right for all kids while doing homework. So that does make it difficult to recommend one thing in particular, and why I have a number of tracks for studying and focus. If they have already learnt and understood the information, but are just trying to commit it to memory for a test, then I would recommend an alpha track, like the Memorization Study Aid product I have with the 10.4Hz frequency you referred to. If they are still trying to fully understand what is being taught in a workbook, then I would recommend a track that is mainly beta frequencies, like my Study Focus tracks. In the middle, I have a number of tracks which use a combination of beta and alpha wave frequencies, like Study Booster, Study Enhancer and Cognition Enhancer. The last 3 use similar frequencies but deliver the tones and brainwave entrainment effects in different ways. As we are all wired a little differently it does sometimes take a bit of trial and error, to see what method or frequency range works best for the individual. These types of tracks are made for a general audience. In an ideal world, you would hook up to an EEG and see in real time exactly what a person responds to best, depending on the goal and current state of mind.
Anxiety: In a review of brainwave entrainment research, there were several studies that investigated short-term stress relief as well as long-term stress or “burnout.” Several used modalities of auditory stimulation, while a couple used audio-visual entrainment. Those with heightened short-term stress and anxiety were undergoing medical treatments, experiencing addiction, and/or were just anxious adults.
My voice is relaxing and relaxation is pleasurable. These mental directives soothingly lull your conscious mind into ending its internal dialogue. It is the conscious mind that does ALL of the worrying, nagging, second-guessing and basically all of the incessant mental chatter and constant inner dialogue that can keep us trapped by our own view of reality, whether these views are good for us or not.
I have had your Equisync CD’s for a little more than 2 years. Some recent stresses prompted me to start listening to them again. Wow……these cd’s are no joke. I have been playing them consistently for the past 2 weeks and they are a tremendous help. I have to ask about the Equisync III cds. Can this elicit a detox reaction? I played it in its entirety one night and the next morning I felt like I was having a healing crisis. I am not complaining 🙂 I believe these particular cds allows tremendous amounts of healing light to enter the body through the higher chakras.
Controlled or pre/post studies of the effects of BWE using auditory or visual stimulation were eligible for inclusion, provided pulses of light or tone were delivered at frequencies hypothesised to have a beneficial effect or in line with a protocol addressing clinical outcomes. Studies were required to report clinical or psychological outcomes (measured using standard methods or as deemed appropriate by peer review) and to report statistical analysis. Studies of outcomes such as electroencephalogram (EEG) response or neurotransmitter levels were not eligible. Case studies were excluded.
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