There are primarily three ways to elicit the frequency following response through an audio: binaural beats, monaural beats, and isochronic tones.  Binaural beats was the first method to be discovered, and has been used since the 80’s, after being first made known and popular by Robert Monroe of the Monroe Institute (the institute is still around today, though Mr. Monroe has passed away).  Binaural beats basically work in this way: one specific frequency/beat is played in one ear, let’s say, 1115 hz., while one slightly different frequency is played in the other at the same time, let’s say, 1120 hz.  What the brain will naturally do while exposed to these two frequencies in either ear is create its own “phantom” beat, that is the difference between the two frequencies.  In this case, it would be 5 hz., which is the frequency of the theta brainwave state.  Therefore, your brain would be led into the theta state.  At the same time, your brain working to combine these frequencies also ends up synchronizing its two hemispheres, and functioning in a whole-brained fashion while the listener is using the audio.
Hi Ulka, thanks for your compliment on my article. Unfortunately, I haven’t come across any studies or much discussion about the problem with habituation and isochronic tones and how to overcome it. The consensus among experienced users is to regularly change the frequencies and music soundtracks you listen to. Adding music to the tones does change the waveform you are stimulated with, so that’s one of the main reasons why I provide different soundtracks for my isochronic tones sessions. I have released some tracks which use amplitude modulations in the music, instead of isochronic tones. It might be worth giving them a try if you haven’t already. I have them in a playlist on YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lj5tHl2cuWw&list=PLveg0IEcZWN6OIRZyLkv0BJADY7Q6xFCl.
In 1839 Heinrich Wilhelm Dove discovered binaural beats, which led to the further discovery of the frequency following response and the beginnings of the science of brainwave entrainment. This science uses the power of specialized sound to FORCE your brain to stop producing defective brainwave patterns - OVERRIDING them to create positive neural feedback instead. Endorphins are created to alleviate pain, serotonin increases to combat anxiety - happy brain chemicals of all kinds are made in response. And the best news? As you continue with it, your brain re-learns to produce these healthy, beneficial and healing brainwaves on its own!
In simplest form, they are an audio technology which are used for (safe) brainwave entrainment. Our subconscious mind operates, throughout the day and night, in various brainwave state frequencies, measured in cycles per second (Hz) These frequencies range from the slowest (Delta) frequencies experienced in deep, dreamless sleep and in deep meditation where your conscious-awareness is fully detached, to the fastest (Gamma) frequencies associated to stimulating flow states, high-level thinking and information processing. There are actually 5 known brainwave state frequencies each having their own set of unique characteristics:
An important objective of entrainment is to produce a dissociative state, which is a meditation-like state of deep relaxation. It is the brain/body rehabilitative benefits produced by this deep trance-like state that makes AVE so useful for so many conditions. The dissociative state can be first observed by noticing deep and diaphragmatic breathing. Hands and feet become warmer as arteries dilate. Skin color will become pinker as blood flow increases throughout the face and body. Blood flow will increase in the brain as well. The person will experience feelings of profound relaxation and contentment as beneficial neurotransmitters are released into the brain. When in this deep state, the brain/body’s regenerative repair chemicals (parasympathetic hormones) and stabilizing neurotransmitters such as serotonin, endorphins and dopamine are released, which restore good brain function. AVE contributes to this restoration by providing a stress-break, increasing cerebral blood flow and encouraging impaired neuronal firing which allows the brain to return to normal function.
Much of what is currently written about brainwave entrainment, especially on the internet, is simply … incorrect.  It seems par for the course that when something of huge value is discovered as a potential ‘internet product’ that it is going to be marketed within an inch of it’s life. And often with less than stellar regard for actual science, research, or factual knowledge. 

Robert Monroe, a radio producer and executive published a popular book called Journeys Out of the Body about his out-of-body experiences when using brainwave entrainment. He later founded an original brainwave entrainment audio company, Hemi Sync. In 1981, the book Mega Brain by Michael Hutchison brought brainwave entrainment information, techniques, and terminology into the popular press.
So what happens when the mind is entrained with a sound or vibration that reflects the thought patterns? When the mind responds to certain frequencies and behaves as a resonator, [there] is a harmonic frequency that the mind can attune to … slower tempos have been proven to decrease heart and respiratory rates, thereby altering the predominant brain-wave patterns.
Rudy's primary work is on Alzheimer's. In this disease, beta amyloid proteins form plaques in the brain and kill nerve cells eventually leading to dementia. Research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis shows that when people's brains are in a Delta brain wave state, beta amyloid production in the brain ceases and the toxic material is cleared away. One thought is to explore the possibility of using brain entrainment technology to help treat Alzheimer's, but at this point all it is being used for is to help people meditate, relax and dream instantly and effortlessly.
The fastest way to make brainwave entrainment technology work for you on your path of spiritual development is to pull back ever so slightly once you realize you have reached the peak of your nervous system’s capacity to recover from the stimulus. Because your nervous system is like a sine wave, when it is about to go into its valley, you pull back just a little bit, thereby giving your nervous system, energetic system, and hormonal system enough room to pull out all of their recovery powers. This allows you to recover from stimulus more quickly, and then you get past the waning stage and back to the waxing stage, where you can start pouring on the juice a little bit more again.

Brainwave Mind Voyages 24 CD Set: Brainwave Meditation Programs, Hemispheric Synchronization, and Brainwave Entrainment Technology (24 BMV CDs: Lucid Dreaming, Astral Trance, Alpha Brainwaves, Theta Brainwaves, Delta Brainwaves, Tones, Astral Vibrations, Remote Viewing, Beta Brainwaves, Lucid Dream Cycle, Lucid Dreams Hypnosis, Guided Dream Incubation, The Whales CD, Rainstorm, The Waters CD, Nature Sounds, Heartbeat Meditation CD, The Om Meditation, Ganzfeld Effect/ White Noise, Breathing Silent Mindfulness, Breathwork Yoga Yogic Breathing Techniques, Tibetan Singing Bowls, Schumann Resonance, Sacred Healing Frequencies Solfeggio Healing Tones)
-Frequency of the Tone Itself that Makes the Beat (Carrier Frequency): The first frequency was the rate of the beat pulsing on and off. This frequency is the sound frequency of the actual tone that comprises the beat. This frequency also has an effect on the way the technology affects your brain and consciousness. For example, too low of a carrier frequency for a binaural beat can be too much for a beginner’s brain to handle at first, and too high of a carrier frequency can be not enough for an experienced meditator’s brain to make big changes.
Recent research at the University of Lisbon finally uncovered the reason for the 350 year-old mystery, finding that the resonance of sound is the mechanism for entrainment of swinging pendulums and ticking clocks, and it seems likely that the energy transferred by sound is also responsible for other observations of entrainment, including brainwave entrainment.
PPPS. You won’t BELIEVE the amazing change that YOU are about to experience. I’ve seen thousands of individuals undergo powerful shifts in their consciousness as a result of using this program. It’s EMPOWERING, and it’s available right now after 10 years of intensive testing and refining. Discover the magic for yourself! Purchase the CD version, or the download version!
 It is a good idea to follow any instructions outlined by the makers of any type of brainwave entrainment product or program, and to ease yourself carefully into using it. If experiencing any negative side effects, take a break and come back to it later. Brainwave entrainment audios are not recommended for children under the age of 18, and should not be used while driving or operating heavy machinery.
A crossover RCT of a single session of theta stimulation in four healthy adults reported no significant improvement in verbal fluency or attention associated with the intervention and a reduction in immediate recall. Controlled comparisons reported significant benefit from the intervention in all three outcomes measured. Six pre/post studies reported significant benefit from the intervention for 19 of 28 cognitive outcomes.
Rather than discontinuing my meditation practice altogether, I instead began researching methods of increasing the effectiveness of meditative practice. This seemed an inevitable decision for me in light of the undeniable improvements I had witnessed in response to previous experience with meditation. This resulted in my eventual re-discovery of brainwave meditation programs brainwave synchronization. I had used a few different such products previously, but none that seemed effectively designed to meet my specific needs. After deciding to try a particular brainwave meditation program, I found it to greatly assist me in producing all of the previously experienced benefits of meditation, but in a shorter period of time and in a much more focused manner.
There's no doubt that brainwave entrainment audio is a great technology for anyone who is interested in encouraging altered states of consciousness and it certainly can help people to reach deeper states of relaxation than they might normally have access to. I myself will often listen to brainwave entrainment music in order to enhance my practice of meditation. But let’s keep a balanced perspective, put all the marketing hype to one side for a moment and acknowledge that there is no brainwave entrainment technology in this world that can make you meditate like a Zen monk “at the touch of a button”, despite what some might like you to believe. The mind is NOT a machine. It moves through various states of consciousness in an organic way and at a natural pace. We certainly can guide and accelerate that process with the use of brainwave entrainment audio, but we cannot control it with the same sort of specificity and immediacy as you might control the speed of the car you drive.
I have been making relaxation recordings for mental self help and health improvement since 1979. As a pathfinder in EEG ( brainwave monitoring and entrainment ) I understand totally the effects of sound and music on the human mind and body. The recordings offered from your website are without doubt some of the most effective I have ever used and recommend them to my clients whole heartedly
Initially the children were entrained to a mu-alpha rhythm (7 to 9 Hz) to decrease theta waves. After the initial mu-rhythm entrainment, they entrained SMR-beta waves for 22 minute sessions. The results as interpreted by TOVA demonstrated significant improvements in: inattentiveness, impulsivity, and variability. Teachers and parents also reported behavioral improvements among the children. Using the right brainwave entrainment protocol may be a potential Adderall alternative for those with attentional deficits.

Deep relaxation is another major benefit resulting from the brains cortical frequency following response while using brainwave entrainment. As the brain tends to mimic the rate of frequency it is exposed to, thus allowing it to enter into that brainwave state, this helps explain why this technology can produce benefits commonly found with meditation.


Brainwave entrainment technology of the FUTURE – today. Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is a thing of the past. Advanced NeuralSync™ technology uses multiple powerful sound frequencies and energetic augmentation that FORCES your brain to STOP producing defective brainwave patterns and OVERRIDES them to create positive neural feedback instead. As you continue use, your brain re-learns to produce healthy, beneficial and healing brainwaves on its own!
Brainwave Mind Voyages 24 CD Set: Brainwave Meditation Programs, Hemispheric Synchronization, and Brainwave Entrainment Technology (24 BMV CDs: Lucid Dreaming, Astral Trance, Alpha Brainwaves, Theta Brainwaves, Delta Brainwaves, Tones, Astral Vibrations, Remote Viewing, Beta Brainwaves, Lucid Dream Cycle, Lucid Dreams Hypnosis, Guided Dream Incubation, The Whales CD, Rainstorm, The Waters CD, Nature Sounds, Heartbeat Meditation CD, The Om Meditation, Ganzfeld Effect/ White Noise, Breathing Silent Mindfulness, Breathwork Yoga Yogic Breathing Techniques, Tibetan Singing Bowls, Schumann Resonance, Sacred Healing Frequencies Solfeggio Healing Tones)
Brainwave Entrainment is the process of synchronizing the brain to specific frequencies and patterns embedded in audio tracks. These frequencies correlate to specific emotions, feelings, and even energy levels. Using nothing more than sound, Brainwave Entrainment can enhance creativity, change moods, and even alter behavior like sleep and energy levels.
Two people with ADHD for example could have completely different ADHD subtypes. One could have inattentiveness as the primary symptom as a result of high theta waves, and the other could have high beta-2 waves as feel hyperactive. While generalized entrainment protocols should be studied, it is important to consider that each person may respond differently to the protocols; each person has a unique neural footprint.
Deep relaxation is another major benefit resulting from the brains cortical frequency following response while using brainwave entrainment. As the brain tends to mimic the rate of frequency it is exposed to, thus allowing it to enter into that brainwave state, this helps explain why this technology can produce benefits commonly found with meditation.
So if YOU’D like to begin meditating deeper than a Zen Monk... If YOU’D like to uncover why everyone says meditation is SO critical... If YOU’D like to discover the SHORTCUT to whole brain thinking and emotional happiness... If YOU’D like to gain insights into the universe... If YOU’D like to release the baggage you’ve been carrying around with you for so long... If YOU'D like to drop addictions and fears... If YOU’D like to become a happier individual, enjoying a natural LIFE HIGH 24/7...
So my question is: Why? When I read it, I had a bit of a fear of brain aneurysms. Therefore, 1. could someone contact me to tell me why use of your product shouldn’t continue past 2 hours? [I probably won’t heed the reason unless it’s a life or death warning: I love this product that much!] 2. Please feel free to post my letter in your testimonials, if you ever decide to post such customer comments.
Back in 1839, Dr. Heinrich Wilhelm Dove, a Prussian physicist and meteorologist, discovered that when you introduce tones with certain frequencies into each ear, you could actually entrain the electrical patterns within the brain to resonate in very specific patterns, called brainwave states. The last two decades have seen an amazing amount of scientific interest in this world transforming field of study, laying the foundation for the hundreds of studies conducted since then, boosting the technology’s significance and importance immeasurably.
Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) is a technique that utilizes pulses of light and sound at specific frequencies to gently and safely guide the brain into various brain wave patterns. By altering your brain wave frequencies, you have the ability to boost your mood, improve sleep patterns, sharpen your mind and increase your level of relaxation, all with the simple push of a button!
In 1984 medical researcher Dr. Gene W. Brockopp published a paper making several conclusions of audio and visual entrainment (AVE). Such conclusions were that hemispheric synchronization caused by AVE is related to increased intellectual functioning, practiced use of AVE overtime leads to a cumulative effect, and AVE may result in the recovery of early childhood experiences.

This is a question I have noticed to concern many people, who are researching the issue. I have come across this question in forums, Yahoo Answers, in blogs, and all other sorts of  places. I can definitely empathize with someone who is looking to find a solution to a problem like anxiety, migraine, pain, etc., and needs reassurance and scientific proof that brainwave entrainment actually works!


NeuralSync™ is the ONLY technology that utilizes FOUR SEPARATE yet synergistically-interactive frequencies precisely calculated to induce each mental state offered in our catalog. Our exclusive 4-W.T.S.P.™ technology creates waves in a balanced 4-dimensional pyramid that are collectively complementary and interactive. Unlike other related programs that use only a single binaural beat or isochronic tone frequency (or several in sequence), NeuralSync™ applies all four simultaneously to immerse your brain into targeted and harmonizing perspectives.


I was using Jeffrey Thompson brainwave cd material for several weeks and suddenly developed severe anxiety, headaches in the forehead and dizziness and confusion . I stopped but the symptoms are still with me a week later. Will these symptoms go away? This isn’t some bad kundalini awakens g it something is it ? Will I get better snd how long will it take to go away? Message me at eurydice@cruzio.com or message me in FB at Nicholas Pierotti (the guy in the hat hugging his daughter ) Please let me know
Unleash your mental power with advanced brainwave entrainment technologies from mindmachines.com.  Relaxation, meditation, sleep, accelerated learning, peak sports performance,  motivation, stress relief, behavior modification, freedom from anxiety and more are possible with the push of a button with this powerful mind entrainment technology.  By altering brainwave your brainwave frequencies using frequency controlled patterns of light and sound these and many more brainwave states can be achieved in just minutes.  Why spend years learning to meditate when you can do in instantly with this a mind machine.
What happens when you meditate using the Profound Meditation Program 3.0 is that instead of statically giving the nervous system the same level of juice every day, you consciously attune and intuitively adjust your nervous system and your energetic system’s unique stimulation recovery cycle. With PMP 3.0, you have a type of system with enough carrier frequency power and biofield amplitude to push your nervous system and your energetic system for a lifetime—and it is a system as dynamic as your growth and recovery cycles are. This system will enable you to push your spiritual development and growth much more quickly, recover much more quickly, and experience less overwhelm.
With brain wave entrainment technology, changing brain wave states is an instantaneous and effortless process. The 'periodic stimulus' can be sound, vibrations and/or light. We have found that we get the best results with blinking lights which are experienced through closed eyelids. This is only problematic for people with existing diagnosis of photo-induced epilepsy, as blinking lights can induce a seizure in them. The programs are enhanced with Deepak Chopra doing the narration along with holographic sound effects and original music composed and performed by Rudy Tanzi.

Brainwave entrainment music can be used almost anywhere and anytime, making this mood and self-improvement method versatile and flexible enough to do at work, while traveling, or at other times during the day. When used in the workplace during short rest periods, brainwave entrainment techniques can enhance concentration, communication, and work productivity.

There is a certain point where the promised benefits of brainwave entrainment become more esoteric, and based on internal, subjective experience of oneself.  A few examples would be that listening to brainwave entrainment on a regular basis helps to increase one’s self-awareness, or that it increases mental “sharpness”, or helps to heal emotional trauma and increase your tolerance of stress and negative emotion. 
In 1956, the famous neuroscientist W. Gray Walter published the results of studying thousands of test subjects using photic stimulation, showing their change in mental and emotional states. He also learned that photic stimulation not only altered brainwaves, but that these changes were occurring in areas of the brain outside of vision. In Walter’s words:
I came to the conclusion that it is not necessary, from what I’ve read in the books of numerous spiritual teachers as well as from my own experiences, where some of my most profound leaps in consciousness actually came when I wasn’t struggling. Although there were times when I had to put forward effort, my meditation practice and my spiritual practice really seemed to gain momentum when my heart and my devotion became so deeply engaged that it was no longer merely a discipline, but a profound love affair that was moving me along. Some of my biggest leaps in growth actually came about almost effortlessly.
3) Theta waves – these waves exist between 4 and 7 Hz. This state is commonly referred to as the dream or “twilight” state. Theta is associated with learning, memory, REM sleep and dreaming. Memory development is also enhanced while in this state. When in a theta brainwave state, memory is improved (especially long-term memory), and access to unconscious material, insights and creative ideas is increased.

* Headphones/Earbuds are Required for Binaural Tones to be Effective as the Left Ear and Right Ear Audio must be isolated for the Brain to perceive the inaudible low-frequency difference between the two sides. ** Changes to Orientation Support: With the upcoming arrival of several new devices with new screen-sizes and aspect ratios, iOS 8 required a re-write of our iPhone and iPad UI to support these devices, and as part of that, we have returned the app to a Portrait-only view for now. Once we know what these future screen dimensions and Aspect Ratios are, and have time to work with the real devices, we can implement a new Landscape UI for the iPad.


Lucid dreaming: A lucid dream is considered a dream that a person is aware of and often able to consciously manipulate.  Many have alleged that using brainwave entrainment technology makes it easier to experience a lucid dream.  Scientists have studied this phenomenon and noticed that beta frequencies within the range of 13 to 19 Hz tend to be generated to keep the person conscious.  Additionally there is significant increased activity in the parietal lobes of the brain, which allows an individual to stay conscious.
Additionally, most of the studies have been conducted with extremely small samples and the touted benefits are vague. When studying the effects, it would be beneficial to hook each participant up to an EEG, note initial brainwave activity, then post-entrainment, note any changes. Although certain conditions share similarities in brainwave activity, this is clearly not always the case.
One of the more fascinating aspects of what brainwave entrainment does, long-term, is the growing of your mental threshold, and your self-awareness.  I have been a participant of the Holosync Solution for several years, and its maker, Bill Harris, has gone to great lengths to explain why this technology does this.  Much of his research is based on the concept of Entropy and Open Systems, (an idea that nominated its discoverer for a nobel prize).  The brain being an open system, and the technology being a specific type of entropy, this technology has been shown to help the brain reorganize itself at a “higher level” through the growth of new neural pathways. This basically means that 
But again, when it comes to subjective experience, and mental evolution, I would have to caution you to take what anyone says with a grain of salt.  Obviously people want to sell these products.  There are some good ones out there and there are some bad ones out there.  There are differences in quality, as well as differences in intent with how the audios are to be used.
Filed Under: Flow State, Healing, iAwake Weekly Call, Life Optimization, Practice of Meditation, Profound Meditation Program, Recovery from addiction, Science of Meditation, Waking Up Tagged With: Benefits of Brainwave Entrainment Meditation, Changing Our Brains, Conscious Evolution, Daily Meditation Practice, Emotional Healing, Integral Practice, Life Optimization, Meditation Technology, practice of meditation, Profound Meditation Program, Profound Releasing, Releasing Trauma, Science of Meditation, Spiritual Development, spiritual maturity, spiritual practice, Stealing Flow, Waking Up, Workout Ecstasy

The various mental states of the individual are thought to take place across a varied range of frequencies, or brainwaves. By encouraging the frequency following process, entrainment is able to create positive change in the brain, through matching carefully-selected frequencies of light and/or sound. The stimulus enables the individual to access a different state of consciousness, which can be useful for a number of benefits including relaxation, anxiety management, stress reduction and more.
A study published in Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology by Paul Williams and Michael West in 1975 examined the brainwave states of people experienced in meditation while using photic stimulation, and another study by Leonard, Telch, and Harrington in 1999 examined the successful use of brainwave entrainment techniques for attaining meditative states in subjects.
From the deepest, sincere, compassionate, and loving part of my soul; I offer thank you. : ) By saving me, I believe your organization did a service to society as a whole, for now I am like a ripple in a pond that will reverberate good vibes to all who I come into contact with. I express compassion, understanding, and knowledge to all who I see need your life saving, and healing product. Like a missionary I desire to spread it; for it is pure, good and loving to my fellow man.
These brainwave entrainment devices are also known as brain machines, dream machine or psychowalkman, AVS device or brainwave frequency generators. Optimize your peak performance and event-related potential (evoked potential via human enhancement). It is now possible with audio visual stimulation (AVS) mind machine brainwave entrainment. We have the best mind machines available. The revolutionary bluetooth MindLightz  provides the worlds first completely wireless light and sound experience as well as iphone/itunes music inegration. We have the most popular devices including The Mind Alive DAVID Delight Pro, the Proteus from Mindplace. Now you can experience altered states of consciousness, ganzeld effects and Hemi-Sync sensations for inner peace, personal wellness, accelerated learning, meditation, behavior modification and deep, restful sleep.
It was a few months after the birth of our second child that I came to truly understand the effects of long-term sleep deprivation. Constantly waking up at 1:00 or 3:00 a.m. soon turned daily life into a hazy blur. I'd often find myself lying in bed, anticipating the next round of crying, or later in the night, I'd be tossing and turning for ages after being woken up. It's no fun whatsoever to drag yourself out of bed every morning with dark circles under your eyes. During this time, it became … [Read more...]

"I have been using Quantum Mind Power for two weeks and today I feel that although the changes are subtle, I have been able to overcome many roadblocks in my personal life. I have ADHD and have been taking Adderall for 7 years, recently I decided that I need to stop and have cut my dosage in half with the intention of completely stopping within a month.  I have also just started teaching Pilates as a second job.....
Just as you turn the dial on a radio to get the station you want, with Brain Sync you can tune your consciousness to the ideal state of mind. Want to meditate or explore the mysteries of your mind? Listen to Theta Waves. Want to study for an exam, Gamma Waves will boost your brain into high gear. Need a good night's sleep? Delta Waves will help you get the rest your body craves. Feeling overwhelmed and need to chill? Alpha Waves wash away stress and increase creativity.

You’ve probably heard people talk about the power of “positive thinking.” While some might tell you that it’s based on faith or strong belief, research has shown that there’s a third ingredient that helps you get that frame of mind – Alpha brainwaves. The rhythm produced by this brainwave – especially those that hit the frequency of 10 Hz – is said to help in the enhancement of one’s mood and thoughts, enabling one to experience and enjoy a positive state of mind.


…I got curious about the Equisync II CDs and it was the 2nd track that started giving me some body signs that revealed me I was in the alpha state. I never practiced meditation before, however, I follow the Gurdjieff and Ouspensky teachings which, if you are not aware, tell us how to do quite the same thing as meditation in our everyday lives while performing our daily tasks. I also believe that Equisync II was more appropriate for me because my life is also dedicated to collective causes, my personal life is totally under control, but your CDs were able to relieve my severe depression after only 3 days of practicing, my chronic insomnia condition which had been lasting for over 27 years seemed to be finally healed. I am truly amazed, really.
Normally, binaural beats, isochronic tones, or monaural tones have a certain level of capacity to entrain neural activity—and then they bottom out. By combining really great entrainment tools, I wanted to create a better entrainment stimulus that could entrain more neural activity quicker, allowing us to go deeper much more quickly than we have ever been able to go before, and moving our meditation practice or spiritual development to the next level.
“A quite different phenomenon results when stereophonic earphones are used and the signals are applied separately to each ear. Under the right circumstances beats can be perceived, but they are of an entirely different character. They are called binaural beats. . . . Binaural beats require the combined action of both ears. They exist as a consequence of the interaction of perceptions within the brain.”
Controlled or pre/post studies of the effects of BWE using auditory or visual stimulation were eligible for inclusion, provided pulses of light or tone were delivered at frequencies hypothesised to have a beneficial effect or in line with a protocol addressing clinical outcomes. Studies were required to report clinical or psychological outcomes (measured using standard methods or as deemed appropriate by peer review) and to report statistical analysis. Studies of outcomes such as electroencephalogram (EEG) response or neurotransmitter levels were not eligible. Case studies were excluded.
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